List of Monarchs of Sweden

Erik Segersäll

House of Eric the Victorious

Eric the Victorious, King of Sweden ca 970-ca 995, supposedly also King of Denmark ca 985-ca 995

Olof Skötkonung, King of Sweden ca 995-probably 1021/1022

Anund James, King of Sweden probably 1021/1022-ca 1050

Emund the Old, King of Sweden ca 1050-ca 1060

House of Stenkil

Stenkil, King of Sweden ca 1060-1066

Halsten Stenkilsson, King of Sweden ca 1067-ca 1070 and possibly (together with Inge) ca 1079-ca 1081

House of Anund Gårdske

Anund Gårdske, King of Sweden ca 1070

House of Håkan the Red

Håkan the Red, King of Sweden ca 1070

House of Stenkil

Inge the Elder, King of Sweden latest 1080-ca 1084 (possibly together with his brother Halsten Stekilsson ca 1079-ca 1081), King of Västergötland ca 1084-ca 1087, King of Sweden ca 1087-ca 1105/1110.

House of Sweyn the Sacrificer

Sweyn the Sacrificer (Swedish: Blot-Sven), King of Sweden ca 1084-ca 1087

House of Stenkil

Philip Halstensson, King of Sweden ca 1105/1110-1118 (from ca 1110 together with Inge the Younger)

Inge the Younger, King of Sweden ca 1110-ca 1125 (until 1118 together with his brother Philip Halstensson)

House of Ragnvald Knaphövde

Ragnvald Knaphövde, King of Sweden during the 1120s

House of Sweyn Estridsen

Magnus Nilsson, King of the Geats 1120s-ca 1132

House of Sverker

Sverker the Elder, King of Sweden ca 1132-1156

House of Eric

Saint Eric, King of Sweden ca 1156-1160

House of Sweyn Estridsen

Magnus Henriksson, King of Sweden ca 1160

House of Sverker

Charles Sverkersson, King of the East Goths from ca 1158, King of Sweden 1161-1167

Kol, King of Östergötland ca 1167-1173 (together with his brother Burislev)

Burislev, King of Östergötland ca 1167-1173 (together with his brother Kol)

House of Eric

Canute Eriksson, King of Sweden latest 1172/1173-1195/1196

House of Sverker

Sverker the Younger, King of Sweden 1195/1196-1208

House of Eric

Eric Knutsson, King of Sweden 1208-1216

House of Sverker

John Sverkersson, King of Sweden 1216/1219-1222

House of Eric

Eric Eriksson the Lisp and Lame, King of Sweden 1222/1223-1229 and 1234-1250

House of Canute the Tall

Canute the Tall, King of Sweden 1229/1231-1234

House of Bjälbo

Birger Jarl

Birger Jarl, Jarl of Sweden 1247/1248-1266

Valdemar Birgersson, King of Sweden 1250-1275

Magnus Ladulås, King of Sweden 1275-1290

Birger Magnusson, King of Sweden 1290-1318

House of Sverre

Ingeborg of Norway

Ingeborg Håkansdotter (Norwegian: Ingebjørg Håkonsdatter), Regent of Sweden 1318-1326, Regent of Norway 1319-1327, Duchess of Estonia 1329-1332 (with Canute Porse the Elder until 1330), Duchess of Halland 1350-1361 (see Monarchs of Norway).

House of Bjälbo

Magnus Eriksson, King of Norway 1319-1355, King of Sweden 1319-1361 (1357-1359 with his son Eric Magnusson), King of Scania 1332-1360

Eric Magnusson, King of Sweden 1357-1359 (with his father Magnus Eriksson)

Håkan Magnusson (Norwegian: Håkon Magnusson), King of Norway 1343-1380, King of Sweden 1362-1364

House of Mecklenburg

Albert of Mecklenburg

Albert, King of Sweden 1364-1389, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin 1384-1412 (see Monarchs of Mecklenburg-Schwerin)

House of Estridsen

Margaret of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Margaret, Queen of Norway 1387-1412 (from 1389 with Eric), Queen of Denmark 1387-1412 (from 1396 with Eric), Queen of Sweden 1389-1412 (from 1396 with Eric) (see Monarchs of Denmark)

House of Griffin

Eric, King of Norway 1389-1441 (until 1412 with Margaret), King of Denmark 1396-1439 (until 1412 with Margaret), King of Sweden 1396-1434 (until 1412 with Margaret) and 1435-1436, Duke of Pomerania-Stolp 1446-1459 (see Monarchs of Pomerania-Stolp)

House of Engelbrekt

Engelbrekt Engelbrektsson, Commander in chief 1435-1436

House of Bonde

Charles Knutsson (Bonde)

Charles Knutsson (Bonde), King of Sweden 1448-1457, 1464-1465 and 1467-1470, King of Norway 1449-1450

House of Wittelsbach

Christopher, Regent of Denmark 1439-1440, King of Denmark 1440-1448, King of Sweden 1441-1448, King of Norway 1442-1448, Count Palatine of Neumarkt 1443-1448 (see Monarchs of Neumarkt)

House of Oxenstierna

Bengt Jönsson (Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö), Regent of Sweden 1448-1448 (with his brother Nils Jönsson)

Nils Jönsson (Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö), Regent of Sweden 1448-1448 (with his brother Bengt Jönsson)

Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö), Archbishop of Uppsala 1448-1467, Regent of Sweden 1457 (with Erik Axelsen (Tott)) and 1465-1466

House of Thott/Tott

Erik Axelsen (Tott), Regent of Sweden 1457 (with Jöns Bengtsson (Oxenstierna af Eka och Lindö) and 1466-1467

House of Oldenburg

Christian I of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Christian I, King of Denmark 1448-1481, King of Norway 1450-1481, King of Sweden 1457-1464, Count of Holstein-Rendsburg 1460-1474, Duke of Schleswig 1460-1481, Duke of Holstein 1474-1481 (see Monarchs of Denmark)

House of Vasa

Kettil Karlsson (Vasa), Bishop of Linköping 1460-1465, Captain General of Sweden 1464, Regent of Sweden 1464 and 1464-1465

House of Sture

Sten Sture the Elder, Regent of Sweden 1471-1497 and 1501-1503

House of Oldenburg

John (Danish, Norwegian and Swedish: Hans), King of Denmark 1481-1513, Duke of Holstein and Schleswig 1482-1513 (with Frederick I), King of Norway 1483-1513, King of Sweden 1497-1501 (see Monarchs of Denmark)

House of Natt och Dag

Svante Nilsson (Natt och Dag), Regent of Sweden 1504-probably 1511

House of Trolle

Erik Arvidsson (Trolle), Regent of Sweden 1512

House of Natt och Dag

Sten Sture the Younger, Regent of Sweden 1512-1520

House of Oldenburg

Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden

Christian II, King of Denmark and Norway 1513-1523, Duke of Holstein and Schleswig 1513-1523 (with Frederick I), King of Sweden 1520-1521 (see Monarchs of Denmark)

House of Vasa

Gustavus I of Sweden

Gustavus I, Regent of Sweden 1521-1523, King of Sweden 1523-1560

Eric XIV of Sweden

Eric XIV, King of Sweden 1560-1569

John III of Sweden

John III, King of Sweden 1569-1592

Sigismund of Sweden and Poland

Sigismund (Polish: Zygmunt III Waza, Lithuanian: Zygimantas Vaza), King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania 1587-1632, King of Sweden 1592-1599

Charles IX of Sweden

Charles IX, Regent of Sweden 1593-1596 and 1598-1603, King of Sweden 1603-1611

Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden

Gustavus II Adolphus the Great, King of Sweden 1611-1632

Christina of Sweden

Christina, Queen of Sweden 1632-1654

House of Wittelsbach

Charles X Gustavus of Sweden

Charles X Gustavus, Count Palatine of Kleeburg 1652-1654, King of Sweden 1654-1660, Duke of Bremen and Verden 1654-1660

Charles XI of Sweden

Charles XI, King of Sweden 1660-1697, Duke of Bremen and Verden 1660-1697, Duke of Palatinate-Zweibrücken 1681-1697

Charles XII of Sweden

Charles XII, King of Sweden, Duke of Bremen and Verden, and Duke of Palatinate-Zweibrücken 1697-1718

Ulrica Eleanor of Sweden

Ulrica Eleanor, Queen of Sweden 1718-1720, Duchess of Bremen and Verden 1718-1719

House of Reginar

Fredrick I of Sweden

Frederick I, King of Sweden 1720-1751, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel 1730-1751 (see Monarchs of Hesse-Kassel)

House of Oldenburg

Adolphus Frederick of Sweden

Adolphus Frederick, Prince-Bishop of Lübeck 1727-1750, King of Sweden 1751-1772

Gustavus III

Gustavus III, King of Sweden 1771-1792

Gustavus IV Adolphus of Sweden

Gustavus IV Adolphus, King of Sweden 1792-1809

Charles XIII of Sweden

Charles XIII, King of Sweden 1809-1818, King of Norway 1814-1818

House of Bernadotte/Pouey

Charles XIV John of Sweden and Norway

Charles XIV John, Prince of Pontecorvo 1806-1810, King of Sweden and Norway 1818-1844

Oscar I of Sweden and Norway

Oscar I, King of Sweden and Norway 1844-1859

Charles XV of Sweden and Norway

Charles XV, King of Sweden and Norway 1859-1872

Oscar II of Sweden and Norway

Oscar II, King of Sweden 1872-1907, King of Norway 1872-1905

Gustavus V of Sweden

Gustavus V, King of Sweden 1907-1950

Gustavus VI Adolphus of Sweden

Gustavus VI Adolphus, King of Sweden 1950-1973

Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden

Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden since 1973

Monarchs of Sweden, II: Olof Skötkonung

Olof Skötkonung mynt

The picture: Coin minted in Sigtuna for Olof Skötkonung.

The second monarch of the House of Eric the Victorious was Olof Skötkonung. Olof was, according to Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, a Swedish biographical dictionary, born latest in the beginning of the 980s, and died probably during the winter of 1021-1022.

Olof’s ancestry

Olof Skötkonung was the son of Eric the Victorious and his wife, who was either Swietoslawa of Poland, called Gunhild in Scandinavia, or Sigrid the Haughty. See my article on Eric the Victorius for a discussion of the identity of Eric’s wife.

Olof’s marriage and children

Olof married Estrid of the Obotrites. Please note that the Wikipedia article about Estrid refers to the book “Alla Sveriges drottningar” (“All the Queens of Sweden”) by Åke Ohlmarks. Like many of his other books, that book is unreliable and we should not trust the Wikipedia article about Estrid, since it uses that book as a source.

With his mistress Edla, daughter of a Vendian Earl (Jarl), Olof had two or three children:

1. Emund the Old, who succedded his paternal half-brother Anund James as King of Sweden.

2. Astrid Olofsdotter of Sweden, who died earliest 1035, and who was the wife of Saint Olaf of Norway. I will write about Saint Olaf and about Olaf’s and Astrid’s Norwegian descendants in a coming series on the Monarchs of Norway.

3. Holmfrid was either Olof’s daughter by his mistress or the daughter of Olof’s father, Eric the Victorious by his other wife Aud Håkonsdottir. Holmfrid was married to Jarl (Earl) Sweyn Håkonsson, co-ruler of Norway from circa 1000 to 1015. Holmfrid and Sweyn, who belonged to the House of Lade, had the daughter Sigriðr  Sigriðr was married to Áslákr, son of the Viking chieftain Erling Skjalgsson (975-1028).

It is not known where Venden was.

In his marriage to Estrid, Olof had two children:

1. Anund James, who succeeded him as King of Sweden.

2. Ingegerd Olofsdotter of Sweden (Saint Anna), who married to Yaroslaw the Wise, Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Kyiv.

Olof’s life

Olof was born latest in the beginning of the 980s, and succeeded his father Eric the Victorious as King of Sweden upon his death circa 995. It is not known what his nickname Skötkonung means. In the Icelandic Hervarar saga his nickname is interpreted to mean that Olof was still a child when became King, and was still carried in the fold of a garment, or sköte in old Swedish. This information is obviously wrong. Olof was a young man, but not a child, when he became King of Sweden.

Other interpretations stem from the nickname Skötkonung meaning taxation king (skattkonung). This has led to the hypothetical explanations that Olof taxed real estate in the Land of the Swedes, imposed Peter’s Pence, paid the Archbishop of Bremen or owed tribute to either his son Anund James or to Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark. It has also been considered that the nickname would allude to to his in the list of Kings in the Westrogothic Law mentioned donation (“skötning” in old Swedish) of Husaby to the Diocese of Skara or be connected with the inscription “sceat” on several of his coins. But so far we do not know what Olof’s nickname Skötkonung referred to.

Contemporary sources on Olof Skötkonung consists partially of a few hundred coins with inscriptions, that mention him, several mintmasters and the coinage location Sigtuna, also partially of a by excavations there found double-sided lead imprint from this coining. The coins are imitations of Anglo-Saxon types from the late 10th century and have been connected with the Anlaf who together with Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark, attacked London 994, according to the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, and thus identifiying Anlaf as Olof Skötkonung. Earlier it has been assumed that Anlaf was Olaf Tryggvasson, King of Norway.

Olof is the first Swedish King known to have minted coins. Together with Sweyn Forkbeard Olof participated in the battle of Svolder against the above mentioned Olaf Tryggvasson of Norway in 999 or 1000, a battle in which said Norwegian King fell. After Olaf Tryggvasson’s fall, Olof Skötkonung supposedly gained half of Trøndelag, Nordmøre and Sunnmøre with Romsdal and all of Båhuslen, which his brother-in-law or son-in-law Sweyn Håkonsson administered for him.

Olof Skötkonung was baptized into the Christian faith. A letter from the German missionary, Archbishop Bruno of Querfurt to the Holy Roman Emperor Henry II in 1008 is regarded to be about Olof’s baptism. In the letter, Bruno says that he sent a bishop to the “Suiges” and that they baptized “seniorem suigiorum”, referring to the King of these Suiges, and that this “seniorem” ‘s wife was already a Christian. A thousand persons and seven parishes were also supposedly baptized. Suiges could be the Swedes, although that has been questioned.

Olof Skötkonung was an opponent of Saint Olaf of Norway for several years. Before returning to Norway, Saint Olaf supposedly ravaged as a pirate in among other places the Lake of Mälaren. The farmers supposedly forced Olof Skötkonung to make peace with Saint Olaf, and promise him his daughter Ingegerd as wife. Olof instead married Ingegerd to Yaroslav the Wise, Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Kyiv. Saint Olaf of Norway instead married Astrid, Olof Skötkonung’s illegitimate daughter.

According to the 11th century German chronicler Adam of Bremen, who received information on Scandinavian history through a stay the court of Sweyn Estridsen, King of Denmark, Olof Skötkonung was united with Canute the Great, when he conquered England in 1015. Adam of Bremen also says that Olof Skötkonung wanted to demolish the heathen temple in (Old) Uppsala, founded the Diocese of Skara, when Olof’s heathen subjects had agreed with him to excercise his authority in the province that he preferred, and through mediation by Thurgot, the first Bishop of Skara, sent large gifts to Archbishop Unwan of Hamburg-Bremen.

Olof Skötkonung probably died during the Winter of 1021-1022. He was succeeded as King of Sweden by his son Anund James.

 

Monarchs of Sweden, I: Eric the Victorious

Erik Segersäll

About the picture: Eric the Victorious, King of Sweden from ca 970, as he was imagined by a 19th century painter.

Sweden is one of the old monarchies of Europe, and this blog post is the first one in my series about Sweden’s monarchs, from the Viking age until our time. I will write short biographies of the monarchs. Mainly, I intend to focus on the genealogy: the ancestry of each individual monarch, and their descendants in the first three generations following each monarch. However, if a descendant of a monarch became a monarch (that happened quite frequently), I will instead list their descendants in the post about that monarch. And when listing ancestors, I will stop when I reach a previous monarch among the ancestors, and instead link to the post about that monarch.

Sweden’s list of monarchs usually starts with Eric the Victorious. In Old Norse, his name is Eiríkr inn sigrsæli, and in modern Swedish, the name is Erik Segersäll. It is not known when Eric was born, and his parents are not known either. Because of this, his dynasty is called the House of Eric the Victorious, although Icelandic sources connect this house with the House of Munsö (also known as the House of Björn Ironside) and with the Ynglings. However, since Eric’s parents are unknown, it is impossible to connect Eric the Victorious with the houses.

According to Flateyjarbók, an Icelandic saga, Eric co-reigned Sweden with his brother Olof Björnsson from 970 until Olof’s death in 975. If this is correct, Eric’s and Olof’s father was named Björn. According to a late addition to the Hervarar saga, their father was named Björn Eriksson and was a Swedish King. However, this addition is late. The 11th century German chronicler Adam of Bremen does not mention him. Instead, Adam says that Eric’s predecessor as King was Emund Eriksson. Adam of Bremen does not explain how Emund and Eric were related. Tradition claims that Eric was son of Emund. But as you can see, nothing is known for certain when it comes to Eric’s ancestry, and Eric the Victorious is the oldest Swedish ancestor that can be claimed with any kind of certainty. Since Eric lived over a thousand years ago, and left descendants, including now living descendants, it is possible (I would dare to say likely) that he is an ancestor of most, maybe all, now living Scandinavians and people descended from Scandinavians.

According to later sagas, Eric’s brother Olof was survived by a son, Styrbjörn the Strong, who claimed a right to the throne after his father’s death. Eric refused to recognize this right, but gave Styrbjörn 60 equipped ships. Styrbjörn then supposedly managed to conquer Jomsborg, the foothold of the Jomsvikings. This made the Danish King Harold Bluetooth very grateful, and King Harold then decided to become Styrbjörn’s ally. Styrbjörn the Strong and his allies went to Sweden some time around 985 to depose Eric. Eric and his nephew Styrbjörn met in the Battle of Fýrisvellir, a plain likely near Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala). The battle lasted for three days. Styrbjörn fell in the battle, and Eric was victorious. Yes, this battle is the explanation of how Eric got the name Eric the Victorious. However, it is not even known whether this battle really happened, or if Styrbjörn the Strong existed.

It is said that Eric shortly after this battle expelled the Danish King Sweyn Forkbeard (son of the above mentioned Harold Bluetooth) from Denmark and then ruled Denmark until his death. While in Denmark, Eric the Victorious supposedly converted to Christianity some time between 990 and 992, and was baptized. However, soon thereafter he supposedly returned to Norse paganism. Eric the Victorious, King of Sweden and the oldest traceable Swedish ancestor, died of illness during the fall of 994 or the winter of 995 on the royal estate in Gamla Uppsala (Old Uppsala). He was succeeded as King of Sweden by his son Olof Skötkonung. The next post in this series will be about him.

The identity of Eric’s wife is dubious. His wife was either Sigrid the Haughty or Swietoslawa of Poland, in Scandinavia known as Gunhild. Swietoslawa was a daughter of Mieszko I, Duke of Poland, and his wife Doubravka of Bohemia (Czechia). Adam of Bremen, who is the older source, says that Eric’s wife was a Slavic princess, sister or daughter of Boleslaw I the Brave, King of Poland. Sigrid the Haughty is mentioned as Eric’s wife by Icelandic sources and by the Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus (ca 1160-ca 1220) in his Gesta Danorum.  Sigrid, if she existed, was the daughter of Skoglar Toste, a 10th century chieftain in Västergötland, a province in Sweden. At any rate, Eric’s widow re-married after his death, with Sweyn Forkbeard, King of Denmark. Yes, the same Sweyn as Eric supposedly expelled.

With his wife, Eric had the son Olof Skötkonung, who succeeded him as King of Sweden. According to Yngvars saga víðförla, Eric was also married to Aud Håkonsdottir, allegedly a daughter of jarl (earl) Håkon Sigurdsson of Lade, the de facto ruler of Norway from about 975 to 995. With her, Eric supposedly had a daughter who was the paternal grandmother of Ingvar the Far-Travelled, who led a large Viking attack against Persia in 1036-1042. Eric was either father or (through his son Olof Skötkonung) the paternal grand-father of Holmfrid, who was married to jarl (earl) Sweyn Håkonsson, co-ruler of Norway from circa 1000 to 1015. Holmfrid and Sweyn, who belonged to the House of Lade, had the daughter Sigriðr  Sigriðr was married to Áslákr, son of the Viking chieftain Erling Skjalgsson (975-1028).

As I have already mentioned, the next post in this series will be about Olof Skötkonung.

How I got started with genealogy

I have been interested in genealogy for as long as I can remember. I was making family trees already when I was a child, at least before my tenth birthday. However, I was not actively looking into any records, I simply asked my older relatives about their ancestors.

My paternal grandparents moved from Finland to Sweden 1956, and in the summer of 1989, when I was 11 years old, my grandparents took me and my cousin with them to visit Helsinki, the capital of Finland, and the city where my grandmother was born and grew up. My grandfather was evacuated from Hanko. In Helsinki, we met with two different cousins of my grandmother. One of them, Harry, told my grandparents that he had done some genealogy, and traced the family back through his maternal (and my grandmother’s paternal) grandfather to the early 18th century, to a farm called Finne, in Pedersöre parish in Ostrobothnia, Finland. My grandmother then mentioned that I was interested in family history, so he told us that he would send her what he had about their family.

A few weeks later, when visiting my grandparents, they told me that they had gotten a letter from Harry. In it, he had sent all the material he had about our mutual ancestors and relatives. After having received these materials, I started drawing family trees starting with an ancestor born in 1723. His descendant, my great-great-grandfather Matts Finne (later Finell) left Pedersöre in the 1890s and moved to Helsinki, where he became a builder, working for the city of Helsinki.

It took me a few more years before I started actually researching the records. During the spring of 1993, when I was 15 years old, I started looking into my mother’s ancestors in Swedish records. Back then, the Internet was still a new thing that I had yet to ever use, and as far as I know, there were no online records. I looked at microfiche pictures of Swedish church records. I corresponded with parishes in Finland to find out more about my father’s ancestors, and I also corresponded with parishes and regional archives in Sweden to find more information about ancestors and relatives who lived after 1895, which then was the newest material that I could find on microfiche for Sweden. These days, some of the online Swedish church records are from the 1940s. The Finnish online church records don’t usually go that far, though.

So, that’s how I got started. Since then, genealogy has turned into a passion of mine, and I have several genealogical projects that I am working on. Maybe I will one day start publishing some books on the descendants of some of 16th and 17th Swedish and Finnish ancestors, too.

Do you have any questions regarding genealogy in Sweden and Finland? Or maybe about genealogy in Norway and Denmark? Feel free to write a comment. You can also hire me to do genealogy for you in the countries mentioned above. I also have access to U.S. records so I may be able to help out with that too.

Helsinki

Picture: Helsinki, with Helsinki Cathedral in the middle of the picture. My ancestors lived in Helsinki from the 1890s until 1956, and I have a lot of history in the city. I might write about that some day.

What this site is about

Hi!

Every blog or site of any sort needs a first post. I have created this site to write about my life long passion: genealogy. And I have created this site to offer you my services as a professional genealogist, specialized in Swedish, Finnish, Norwegian and Danish genealogy. Although I officially started doing genealogy when I was 15 years old, in the spring of 1993, I actually started even earlier. For as long as I can remember, I was curious about my ancestry. I drew family trees when I was seven or eight years old, and I questioned my grandparents about their parents and grandparents. Because of this, I know stories about my ancestors four and five generations ago.

In the spring of 1993, I started looking at church records. Since then, I have studied not only my own ancestry, which is mainly (about 99% of my known ancestors) Swedish and Finnish, with some German, Norwegian, Walloon and English ancestry on top of that, but also my more or less distant cousins, in-laws, their ancestors, Swedish & Finnish nobility, the European royalty, the clergy of the diocese of Karlstad in Sweden, and more. Once you get started with genealogy, there is always another genealogical project waiting to be started, or hopefully finished.

If you are interested in my help with your Swedish, Finnish, Norwegian or Danish ancestors (or other relatives), you can contact me by sending an E-Mail to jggenealogy77 at google dot com (replace “at” with “@” and “dot” with “.”).

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